In particular, toluene affects learning and memory and provokes various molecular, biochemical, and structural alterations in the hippocampus of adolescents and adults. Autoradiography investigations have shown that following inhalation of toluene, mice had higher radioactivity levels in the white matter of the brain, spinal cord and spinal nerves, and body fat. Figure 1. Estimated volatilization half-lives for a model river and model lake are 1 h and 4 days, respectively (USEPA, 2011). Powers, in Encyclopedia of Cardiovascular Research and Medicine, 2018. In case reports of human insufflation, toluene has been reported to cause myocardial infarction. However, that does not mean that there was no benzene in that product. Toluene occurs naturally in crude oil and in the tolu tree.
The biodegradation half-life in various soils was reported as several hours to 71 days (HSDB, 2011). A person’s vitals are constantly monitored while undergoing detoxification from inhalants, and appropriate medications are prescribed to relieve withdrawal symptoms. The mechanism of neural toxicity has not been fully established; it is unclear whether this is a direct effect or is secondary to the production of free radicals. Micromolar concentrations of toluene reversibly inhibit cardiac voltage-activated sodium channels (Nav1.5) expressed in oocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. These same studies show lower radioactivity levels in the blood, kidneys, and liver, suggesting that metabolite formation and elimination are rapid. Toluene is found in lacquers, paint thinners, paints and adhesives. Lesions of the basal ganglia are not thought to be caused by toluene exposure but may be present due to concomitant methanol exposure.7 In cases of recreational exposure, diagnosis is based on history and index of suspicion.
It is also used for synthesis of benzene and other chemicals, including graphic pigments, paints, and solvents. The character of these alterations depends upon the age the organism tested.
Sudden sniffing death syndrome involves the interaction of cardiac arrhythmia, respiratory depression and anoxia produced by huffing, causing cardiac arrest and death. Toluene (Methyl Benzene) Toluene is a used as paint, lacquer thinner, or a dyeing agent. Using a measured log Kow of 2.36, the USEPA’s EPI Suite computer program estimates both bioconcentration factor (BCF) and bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of 38.
Blood toluene levels may also be used. methyl benzene, is a clear, flammable, water-insoluble liquid with the odor of paint thinner. If released to air, the moderate vapor pressure predicts that toluene will exist solely as a vapor in the ambient atmosphere. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors.
Neurobehavioral effects include decreases in performance IQ, memory abnormalities, poor motor control, decreased visuospatial functioning, and dementia.15 Treatment consists of removal from the source of toluene exposure. It is often used as a solvent because it can help dissolve other substances.
Research since 2005 has seen significant increases in in vitro and in vivo investigations of abused inhalants (Bowen, Batis, Paez-Martinez, & Cruz, 2006). In rat models, high levels of administered toluene resulted in bradycardia and eventual asystole, while subacute levels resulted in repolarization disorders and arrhythmia (Morvai et al., 1976). It is of note that the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires that benzene be listed on material safety data sheets (MSDS) if the concentration is .1% or higher.
It readily crosses the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and has an affinity for white matter.
62.1). Like cocaine, toluene and benzene stimulate dopamine release in both areas. The misuse of these substances is associated with the activation of brain areas involved in both addiction and learning. Toluene is a used as paint, lacquer thinner, or a dyeing agent. Unfortunately, refined toluene still contains benzene (a “known carcinogen”).
Biodegradation is expected to occur rapidly in water, with reported half-lives of 4 and 56 days in aerobic and anaerobic water, respectively. Once absorbed, toluene is rapidly taken up by red blood cells and blood plasma, enhancing its delivery throughout the body, especially to the brain and other organs/tissues high in lipids and well vascularized (ATSDR, 2000) (Figure 1). On-purpose benzene production depends on conversion margins: Voluntary production of benzene using toluene depends on the margins between toluene and benzene. It is produced in the process of making gasoline and other fuels from crude oil, in making coke from coal, and as a by-product in the manufacture of styrene. This means that a product that is 60% toluene would have been 3% benzene. The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has established exposure indices for workers at risk of toluene exposure. The log octanol/water partition coefficient (Kow) is 2.73.
It has a sweet, pungent benzene like odor. These predicted bioaccumulation and biomagnification values are very low. Toluene and xylene. Toluene and toluene-containing volatile substances are the most commonly abused solvents with a demonstrative addictive potential for humans. Like cocaine, toluene and benzene stimulate dopamine release in both areas. Oral and dermal routes of administration can increase the total body burden of compounds like toluene. But when the benzene content comes from toluene, companies are able to leave benzene off of their MSDS and thus leaving consumers at risk.
According to the indexing preferences of the Chemical Abstracts, phenol, benzaldehyde, and benzoic acid (labeled in … This effect depends on the integrity of the local anesthetic binding site, because a single mutation in this site is enough to prevent toluene inhibition. All rights reserved. Toluene also appears to play a role in inhibiting sodium channels in cardiac myocytes which are responsible for depolarization (Daniel, 2008). This can result in: Women who regularly huff high levels of benzene for extended periods may experience irregular menstrual periods, ovarian damage and permanent infertility. Human organs vulnerable to inhalant-related damage. Dementia is the most disabling aspect of the syndrome, characterized by apathy, memory loss, visuospatial deficits, and preserved language function.